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مدیر وبلاگ : یوسف رسولی
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چهارشنبه 6 خرداد 1394 :: نویسنده : یوسف رسولی

ادغام روش ها، بهترین الگوی آموزش
بسیاری از معلمان در تلاشند تا فرآیند آموزش را از حالت منفعل بیـــــرون بیاورند و دانش آموزان را ترغیب كنند تا به صورت فعالانه در یادگیــــــــری مطالب درسی مشـاركت داشته باشند.یكی از الگوهای آموزش «دانش آموز محور»، الگوی تجربه و گفت وگو است. در ایـن الگو تمامی فعالیت های آموزشی برپایه تجربه و گفت وگو بنیان نهاده شده است. تجربه به دو بخش عملی و مشاهـــده تقسیم می شود و گفت وگو نیز شامل دو بخش گفت وگـــوی درونی و گفت وگو با سایر دانش آموزان است.
گفت وگوی درونی
در این روش از دانش آموزان خواسته می شود تا درباره موضوع درسی به خوبی فكر كنند و سپس ایده ها و نظرات و عقاید خود را درباره آن به روی كاغذ بیاورند یا به نحو دیگری ثبت كنند. استفاده از این روش موجب می شود تا دانش آموز از موضع یك شنونده مطلق بیرون بیاید و فعالانه فكر كند.
گفت وگو با دیگر دانش آموزان
در شیوه های آموزش سنتی نیز از این روش به صورت كنفرانس دادن دانش آمــوزان یا در كـــــلاس كتابی را با صدای بلند خواندن استفاده می شود. هر چند این موارد می تواند در كلاس تنوعی ایجاد كند، ولی چندان كارآمد نیست.
مشاهده
در این روش دانش آموزان موضوع درس را به صورت دیداری یا شنیداری فرا می گیـــــرند.
استفاده از آزمایشگاه ، دیدن فیلم ، گوش دادن به نوار یا
CDهای صوتی، رفتن به اردوهای علمی و بازدید از موزه های مختلف در این دسته قرار می گیرند.
تجربه عملی
در این روش دانش آمــــوز خود وارد عمل می شود و دست به انجام فعالیت های مختلف می زند.
انجام دادن آزمایش های مختلف ، انجام دادن كارهـــــــای هنری ، نمایش دادن و بازی های نقش آفرینی در این دسته قرار می گیرند.
استفاده از الگوی تجربه و گفت وگو
چگونه یك معلم می تواند از این مدل چهارگانه برای مؤثرتر كردن آمــــــوزش دانش آموزان استفاده كند راهكارهای زیر می توانند در این باره بسیار مؤثر باشند.
توسعه روش های تدریس
برای آموزش دادن می توان از روش های متنوع و زیادی استفاده كرد. اگر بتـــوانید دانش آموزان را به مشاركت در یادگیری ترغیب كنید، خودتان هم از تدریس بیشتر لذت خواهید برد. استفاده از بحث های گروهی دانش آمــــوزان را فعال و مشتاق می كند و كلاس را از حالت كسالت بار بیرون می آورد.
سعی كنید دانش آموزان را به سوی تحقیق و پژوهش و حتی گفت وگو با افـــراد متخصص درباره موضوع درسی سوق دهید. در كلاس از محصولات سمعی و بصری به خوبی استفاده كنید. فیلم ها، عكس ها و پوسترها می توانند به خوبی ذهن دانش آموزان را درگیر موضوع درس كنند.البته استفاده از چهار مدل ارائه شده در این الگـــو به موازات یكدیگر می تواند نتایج بسیار خوبی در برداشته باشد.
یادگیری استدلالی
در استفاده از الگوی تجربه و گفت وگو، هدف ایجاد تعامل و تعادل بین این دو است. در حقیقت تجربه و گفت وگــــــو از یكدیگر جدا نیستند و پیشرفت در هر یك از آنها موجب توسعه دیگری می شود. تجربه موجب می شود تا دانش آموزان از زوایای مختـلف موضوع درسی را بررسی كنند و افكار و عقاید خود در آن زمینه را به سطح بالاتری ارتقــا دهند كه بازتاب آن در گفت وگو دیده می شود. گفت وگو نیز موجب درك بهتر تجـــربه دستیابی به معانی و مفاهیم وسیع تری از مشاهدات و آزمایش ها می شود.





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